Due to the nature of its business, the Group is exposed to different types of risks. For this reason, the Group has developed procedures at both the Parent Company level and in its main subsidiaries to manage risks in the most exposed areas. These risks are identified at a strategic, external, operational and financial level, and also take into consideration sustainability issues, in particular so-called "ESG" (Environmental, Social and Governance related) risks, i.e. those related to environmental factors, personnel, social aspects and human rights and the fight against active and passive corruption. Details are provided in the 2023 Consolidated Non-Financial Statement.

Reputational and Corporate Social Responsibility risk

In carrying out its operations, the Group could be exposed to stakeholders’ perception of the Group and its reputation and their loyalty changing for the worse because of the disclosure of detrimental information or due to sustainability requirements in the Non-financial Statement published by Immsi S.p.A. and Piaggio & C. S.p.A., not being met, as regards economic, environmental, social and product-related aspects.
In particular, the Piaggio group has implemented tools to monitor brand perception and customer satisfaction to deal with this risk.

Risks related to defining strategies

In defining its strategic objectives, the Group could make errors of judgment with a consequent impact on its image and financial performance.

Risks related to adopting strategies

In carrying out its operations, the Group could be exposed to risks from the wrong or incomplete adoption of strategies, with a consequent negative impact on achieving the Group’s strategic objectives. Periodic monitoring to verify any deviations from previously established objectives makes it possible to reduce the impact of these risks.

Risks associated with the macroeconomic and geopolitical context

The Group, and the Piaggio group in particular, is exposed to risks deriving from the characteristics and evolutionary dynamics of the economic cycle and the national and international political context. To mitigate any negative effects arising from the macroeconomic and geopolitical context, it continued its strategic vision, diversifying operations at international level - in particular in Asia where growth rates of economies are still high, and consolidating the competitive positioning of its products.
The conflict between Russia and Ukraine has had major worldwide consequences for the economic effects on global markets, especially in terms of increased transport costs, raw material prices and energy prices. The geographical diversification of the Group’s sales and purchases means that it has essentially no exposure in the conflict area. The indirect impacts of the conflict mainly concerned the increase in the cost of energy, especially for European plants, and the increase in the cost of raw materials, mitigated for the Piaggio group in part by the agreements entered into with suppliers. The conflict in the Middle East is having an impact on trade flows. In particular, possible attacks on ships transiting the Red Sea have led to a drastic reduction in traffic in the Suez Canal and a diversion of trade routes, with a consequent increase in costs and times related to the transport of supplies and the distribution of products. The direct impacts on the Group are currently limited, mitigated by selecting local suppliers and by the efficiency of the systems used for the planning and logistics process.

Risks related to consumer purchasing habits

The success of the Group’s products depends on its ability to manufacture products that cater for consumer’s tastes and – with particular reference to the Piaggio group – can meet their needs for mobility.
With reference to the subsidiary Intermarine, however, the success of the company in the different lines of business in which it operates depends on the ability to offer innovative and high quality products that guarantee the performance demanded by customers, in terms of lower fuel consumption, higher performance, greater passenger transport capacity, greater cruising comfort, handling and safety of the vessels used, among other things, in the defence and control of territories. The risk could derive from the uncertainties of fitting out the new prototypes and the lack of funds and programmes to renew the fleet on the part of Italian and international shipowners. In this respect, shipowners will now be able to verify and use the availability of financial resources under the NRRP. If the products of the Immsi Group companies were not appreciated by customers, revenues or - further to more aggressive sales policies in terms of discount drives - margins would be lower, and this would have a negative impact on the related economic and financial situation. To tackle this risk, the Group has always invested in research, development and innovation activities to enable it to optimally meet customer needs and anticipate market trends by introducing innovative products.
Levering customer expectations and emerging needs, with reference to its product range and customer experience is essential for the Piaggio group to maintain a competitive edge. Through market analysis, focus groups, concept and product testing, investments in research, development and innovation and sharing its roadmap with suppliers and partners, Piaggio aims to capitalise on emerging market trends to renew its own product range. Customer feedback enables Piaggio to evaluate customer satisfaction levels and fine-tune its own sales and after-sales service model.

Risks associated with the high degree of market competition

In addition, the Group is exposed to the actions of competitors that, through technological innovation or replacement products, could obtain products with better quality standards and streamline costs, offering products at more competitive prices.
In the industrial sector, the Piaggio group has tried to tackle this risk, which could have a negative impact on the financial position and performance of the Group, by manufacturing high quality products that are innovative, reliable and safe, and by consolidating its presence in the geographic segments where it operates.
With reference to the marine sector, and the mine sweeping platforms segment, Intermarine has a considerable technological edge over the competition, while the Fast Ferries division is affected in particular by a context in which the owners prefer carrying out repairs on operating vessels rather than investing in new constructions. It has become apparent in the recent period that activities and prospects in the Fast Ferries market are reviving, in the light of the recent requests for tenders received from private shipowners and invitations to tender.


Risk related to the regulatory and legal framework

Numerous national and international laws and regulations on safety, noise levels, consumption and the emission of pollutant gases apply, in particular to Piaggio products. Strict regulations on atmospheric emissions, waste disposal, the drainage and disposal of water and other pollutants also apply to the group’s production sites, as do reporting obligations on sustainability. Unfavourable changes in the regulatory and/or legal framework at a national and international level could mean that products can no longer be sold on the market, forcing manufacturers to invest to renew their product ranges and/or renovate/upgrade production plants.
To deal with these risks, the Piaggio group has always invested in research and development into innovative products, anticipating any restrictions on current regulations. Moreover, the Piaggio group is not only a member of Confindustria, but also of important national and international associations in the automotive sector, such as ACEM (chaired by Michele Colaninno), ANFIA and ANCMA, which represent and protect the economic, technical and regulatory interests of the automotive sector in institutional and political dimensions, and with the authorities, bodies and associations responsible, at national and international level, for industrial policy and the individual and collective mobility of persons and goods.
Finally, the Piaggio group, as one of the sector's leading manufacturers, is often requested to be represented on parliamentary committees appointed to discuss and formulate new laws. Intermarine is also a member of important trade associations such as Confindustria La Spezia and Messina as well as the AIAD Federation representing Italian Aerospace, Defence and Security Companies.

Risks associated with natural events

As part of the assessment of risks related to climate change, the Group has not currently identified as relevant risks related to the inability to achieve strategic objectives due to changes in the external context (also taking into account possible impacts on the supply chain) and a possible inadequate management of atmospheric emissions.
The process of identifying these risks, as well as the assessments of their relevance and significance, were conducted both on the basis of the internal context as well as on the basis of the dynamics of the reference market, and current regulations.
At a strategic level, the Piaggio group intends in any event to pursue the integration of sustainable development principles into its vision and business model in an increasingly precise and consistent way, which includes the preparation of its Decarbonisation Plan. With this Plan, the Group, and in particular Piaggio, has confirmed its commitment to sustainability, defining concrete actions to contribute to achieving the climate targets set by the European Union.
In this context it should be noted that the Piaggio group operates through industrial plants located in Italy, India, Vietnam and Indonesia. These sites could be affected by natural events, such as earthquakes, typhoons, flooding and other catastrophes that may damage sites and also slow down/interrupt production and sales. In this respect, in 2023 the Piaggio group, with the support of a leading consulting firm, carried out a climate risk analysis for the plants in Pontedera (Italy) and Baramati (India). This analysis did not highlight any critical issues related to climatic factors for either production site.
Potential impacts related to the physical risks associated with climate change are managed by the Group and in particular by the Piaggio group and the subsidiary Intermarine S.p.A. through the continuous renovation of facilities, and also through the stipulation of specific insurance cover divided among the various sites according to their relative importance. Specifically, with reference to Piaggio, the outcome of the above assessments on the relevance of climate change risks was also duly taken into account in the process of defining the assumptions adopted to prepare the Business Plan, as better described in the notes to the 2023 Consolidated Financial Statements of the Piaggio group, in the section on Goodwill.

Risks related to the pandemic

If a pandemic spreads and measures are adopted by various governments to contain the virus, the Group’s businesses could be negatively affected in terms of decreasing revenues, margins and cash flows.
In particular, the Piaggio group could have an impact on:

  • the procurement chain: suppliers might no longer be able to produce/deliver the components necessary to supply production sites;
  • production activities: the Group might no longer be able to use the workforce, following government regulations limiting personal movement, or it might be impossible for the company to guarantee a healthy, protected work environment;
  • the distribution of products: measures to contain the spread of the virus could require sales outlets to be closed, or the Group might not be able to supply the sales network. Piaggio has tried and is trying to deal with this risk, which could negatively affect the group's financial position and performance following a possible decrease in revenues, profitability and cash flows, thanks to a global sourcing policy, a production capacity distributed on different continents and a sales network present in over 100 nations.

The Group carefully monitors the development of the health situation and implements all precautions to ensure the health and safety of employees within its plants and to be able to fulfil all its commitments.

Risk related to the adoption of new technologies

The risk related to the adoption of new technologies is associated above all with the Piaggio group, which is exposed to risk arising from the difficulty of keeping abreast with new technologies, both in terms of products and the production process. To deal with this risk, on the one hand, as regards products, the R&D centres in Pontedera, Noale and the PADc (Piaggio Advance Design Center) in Pasadena carry out research, development and the testing of new technological solutions, such as those dedicated to electric vehicles, through strategic partnerships in some cases. Piaggio Fast Forward in Boston is also studying innovative solutions to anticipate and respond to the mobility needs of the future.
As regards the production process, Piaggio has operational areas dedicated to the study and implementation of new solutions to improve the performance of production facilities, with particular attention paid to sustainability and energy efficiency aspects.

Risks related to the sales network

The Piaggio group’s business is closely related to the sales network’s ability to guarantee end customers a high quality sales and after-sales service, to build a relationship of trust and lasting. The Piaggio group deals with this risk by defining compliance with certain technical/professional standards in contracts, and implementing periodic controls, reinforced by new IT systems designed to improve network monitoring activities and therefore the level of customer service.

Product-related risks

The Group has to deal with risks related to product defects due to non-conforming quality and safety levels.
The risk for the Piaggio group refers to consequent recall campaigns, that would exposed the group to: the costs of managing campaigns, replacing vehicles, claims for compensation and above all if faults are not managed correctly and/or are recurrent, damage to its reputation. A product nonconformity may be due to potential errors and/or omissions of suppliers, or internal processes (i.e. during product development, production, quality control).
To mitigate these risks, the Piaggio group has established a Quality Control system, it tests products during various stages of the production process and carefully sources its suppliers based on technical/professional standards. The quality provided by the group is also guaranteed by obtaining and maintaining quality management system certification at global level (ISO 9001). The Piaggio group has also defined plans to manage recall events and has taken out insurance to protect the group against events attributable to product defects.
To deal with product risk, the subsidiary Intermarine instead normally adopts a type of contract that also includes assistance and logistics packages which are formalised in agreements regulating acquired contracts.

Risks related to the production process/business continuity

The group is exposed to risk connected with possible interruptions to company production, due to the unavailability of raw materials or components, skilled labour, systems or other resources. To deal with these risks, the Group has necessary maintenance plans, invests in upgrading machinery, has a flexible production capacity, prepares Disaster Recovery plans and sources from several suppliers of components to prevent the unavailability of one supplier affecting company production.
Moreover, the operating risks related to industrial sites in Italy and other countries, as regards the Piaggio group, are managed through specific insurance cover assigned to sites based on their relative importance.

Risks related to the supply chain

In carrying out its operations, the Group sources raw materials, semi-finished products and components from a number of suppliers.
As regards the Piaggio group, operations are conditioned by the ability of its suppliers to guarantee the quality standards and specifications requested for products, as well as their delivery times. To mitigate these risks, the Piaggio group qualifies and periodically evaluates its suppliers based on professional/technical/financial criteria in line with international standards.
With reference to the marine sector, Intermarine acquires raw materials, contracts and services from a large number of external suppliers, that have specific competencies, in particular in ship fitting. The close cooperation between producers and suppliers is common in the fields where the company operates and, while it may lead to economic benefits in terms of lower costs and greater flexibility, it also means that companies must rely on these suppliers. Supplier difficulties could have a negative impact, causing interruptions in and/or delays to production activities, with the risk of not meeting deadlines.

Risks related to the environment and health and safety

The Group has production sites, research and development centres and sales offices in different nations and so is exposed to the risk of not being able to guarantee a safe working environment, with the risk of causing potential harm to property or people and exposing the Group to legal sanctions, lawsuits brought by employees, costs for compensation payments and reputational harm.
The risks related to accidents/injuries sustained by personnel are mitigated by aligning processes, procedures and structures with applicable Occupational Safety laws, as well as best international standards.
These commitments are set out in the Codes of Ethics of Group companies.
To mitigate these risks, the Piaggio group adopts a model that is based on environmental sustainability, in terms of safeguarding natural resources and the possibility that the ecosystem might absorb the direct and indirect impact of production activities. Specifically, the Piaggio group seeks to minimise the environmental impact of its industrial activities through careful definition of the technological transformation cycle and use of the best technologies and most modern methods of production.
For the Piaggio group, these commitments, set out in the Code of Ethics and confirmed by top management in the Group's "environmental policy" which is the basis for environmental certification (ISO 14001) and health and safety certification (ISO 45001) already awarded and maintained at production sites, are in any case a mandatory benchmark for all company sites.
The subsidiary Intermarine S.p.A. also adopts systems aimed at the most efficient management and monitoring of environmental and health and safety-related risks associated with its production activities. In particular, the shipyards at Sarzana and Messina have Environmental certification (Iso 14001), issued by RINA. Although not yet certified, all sites have also adopted the same Integrated Management System which also covers health and safety (ISO 45001).

Risks related to processes and procedures adopted

The Group is exposed to the risk of shortcomings in planning its company processes or errors and deficiencies in carrying out operations.
To deal with this risk, the Group has established a system of directives comprising organisational notices and Manuals/Policies, Management Procedures, Operating Procedures and Work Instructions. For the Piaggio group, all documents related to Group processes and procedures are part of the single Group Document Information System, with access that is regulated and managed on the company intranet.

Risks related to delays in the completion of orders

With particular reference to the subsidiary Intermarine S.p.A. operating in the marine industry, any delay in the completion of contracts in progress may lead to customers requesting penalties for late delivery where contractually agreed, with the risk of reducing the overall profitability of orders and reducing financial assets. On the other hand, the company could pass on the effect of the impact on delivery times, for delays in deliveries and in completing services and for failing to pass tests, with the need to perform the tests again, to its subcontractors.

Risks related to human resources

The main risks the Group is exposed to concerning human resources management include the ability to recruit expertise, professionalism and experience necessary to achieve objectives. To offset these risks, the Group has established specific policies or practices for recruitment, career development, training, remuneration and talent management, which are adopted in all countries where it operates according to the same principles of merit, fairness and transparency, and focusing on aspects that are relevant for the local culture.
The employees of Group companies are protected by laws and collective labour contracts that guarantee them – through local and national representation – the right to be consulted on specific matters, including programmes related to the use of staff in accordance with ongoing job orders.
In Europe, the Piaggio group operates in an industrial context with a strong trade union presence, and is potentially exposed to the risk of strikes and interruptions to production activities.
In the recent past, the Group was not affected by major interruptions to production because of strikes.
To avoid the risk of interruptions to production activities, as far as possible, the Group bases its relations with trade union organisations on dialogue.

Legal risks

The Group legally protects its products and brands throughout the world. In some countries where the Group operates, laws do not offer certain standards of protection for intellectual property rights. This circumstance could render the measures adopted by the Piaggio group in particular to protect itself from the unlawful use of these rights by third parties inadequate.
Within the framework of its operations, the Group is involved in legal and tax proceedings. As regards some of the proceedings, the Group could be in a position where it is not able to effectively quantify potential liabilities that could arise. A detailed analysis of the main disputes is provided in the specific section of the Report on Operations.

Risks related to internal offences

The Group is exposed to risks of its employees committing offences, such as fraud, active and passive corruption, acts of vandalism or damage that could have negative effects on its business results in the year, and also harm the image and integrity of the company and its reputation. To prevent these risks, the Group has adopted Organisational Models pursuant to Legislative Decree 231/2001 (Compliance Programmes) and Codes of Ethics, which illustrate the principles and values inspiring the entire organisation, and has set up Whistleblowing platforms, which can be used to communicate information on serious wrongdoings relating to violations of the law and/or the internal control system, which have occurred or are very likely to occur within the Organisation.

Risks related to financial disclosure

The Group is exposed to the risk of possible inadequacies in its procedures that are intended to ensure compliance with main Italian and foreign regulations applicable to financial disclosure, running the risk of receiving fines and other sanctions. In particular, the Group is exposed to the risk that financial reporting for Group stakeholders is not accurate and reliable due to significant errors or the omission of material facts and that the Group provides disclosure required by applicable laws in a manner which is inadequate, inaccurate or untimely.
It should be noted that the control activity provided for by Law 262/2005, in addition to referring to the Parent Company, is also extended to the Group's most important subsidiaries. The Group also has an internal audit function, while the financial statements are audited by the Independent Auditors.

ICT system risks

With reference to this category, the main risk factors that could compromise the availability of the Group's ICT systems include cyber attacks, which could cause the possible interruption of production and sales support activities or compromise the confidentiality, integrity and availability of personal data managed by the Group.
On a global level, there was an increase in cyber attacks during the year, both in number and intensity, which did not, however, cause any damage, particularly in the Piaggio group. In this context, continuous measures are taken to consolidate the centralised control system, aimed at improving IT security.

Other risks

In the specific case of the Parent Company Immsi S.p.A., in consideration of its nature as a holding company and the different phase of development and advancement of investments made both directly and through subsidiaries, its financial performance and profitability are strictly related to the financial performances of subsidiaries.

Risks related to insufficient cash flows and access to the credit market

At the end of the reporting period, the main sources of Group financing were:

  • debenture loans for a nominal amount of approximately €250 million issued by Piaggio & C. S.p.A.;
  • bank loans for a nominal amount of approximately €698.4 million. The type, rates and maturities of these loans are discussed in the Notes.

In addition, the Group has outstanding amounts due for leases, amounts due to subsidiaries not fully consolidated and amounts due to other lenders for an overall amount of approximately €88.1 million.
The Immsi Group has undrawn credit lines of €517 million, available to meet any unforeseen cash requirements, of which €466 million referred to the Piaggio group.

The Group is exposed to the risk arising from the production of cash flows that are not sufficient to guarantee Group payments due, with effects on adequate profitability and growth such as to guarantee the pursuit of strategic objectives. Moreover, this risk is connected with the difficulty the Group may have in obtaining loans or a worsening in conditions of loans necessary to support Group operations in appropriate time frames. The debt indicated above could also negatively affect Group operations in the future, limiting its capacity to obtain further financing or to obtain it at more favourable conditions. In particular, over the next 12 months, together with the short-term instalments of medium- and long-term loans, several short-term credit lines will expire, the renewal of which is crucial to be able to continue operating. A detailed examination of these lines is provided in the Notes.
To face this risk, the Group’s cash flows and credit line needs are monitored constantly by management or, in the case of the Piaggio group, managed centrally under the control of the Piaggio group’s Treasury Department, in order to guarantee an effective and efficient management of financial resources, as well as optimise the debt’s maturity standpoint. In addition, Piaggio & C., the parent company of the Piaggio group, finances the temporary cash needs of its subsidiaries through the direct disbursement of short-term loans regulated at market conditions or through guarantees, and also provides for the transfer of receivables and supply chain financing or reverse factoring operations as specified in more detail in the valuation criteria of the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
To deal with this risk, Intermarine also monitors and strictly manages the company's cash flow and credit line needs with the aim of ensuring an effective and efficient management of financial resources as well as optimising the debt’s maturity standpoint.
The Parent Company Immsi S.p.A. supports, where necessary, its subsidiaries in the “Property and Holding” and “Marine” sectors through credit lines in order to guarantee support for the implementation of their development plans.
Also with reference to the net financial indebtedness of the above-mentioned Sectors, reference should be made to the section of the Notes to the Financial Statements entitled "Accounting standards and measurement criteria".

Exchange rate risks

The Group, primarily through Piaggio group companies, undertakes operations in currencies other than the Euro and this exposes it to the risk of fluctuating exchange rates of different currencies. Exposure to business risk consists of envisaged payables and receivables in foreign currency, taken from the budget for sales and purchases reclassified by currency and accrued on a monthly basis. With reference to the Piaggio group, the policy is to hedge at least 66% of the exposure of each reference month. Exposure to the settlement risk consists of receivables and payables in foreign currency acquired in the accounting system at any moment. The hedge must at all times be equal to 100% of the import, export or net settlement exposure for each currency. In 2023, the exchange risk was managed in line with the current policy, which aims to neutralise the possible negative effects of exchange rate changes on company cash-flow, by hedging the business risk, which concerns changes in company profitability in relation to the annual business budget on the basis of a key change (the so-called “budget change”) and of the settlement risk, which concerns the differences between the exchange rate recorded in the financial statements for receivables or payables in foreign currency and that recorded in the related receipt or payment.

Interest rate risks

The Group has assets and liabilities which are sensitive to changes in interest rates and are necessary to manage liquidity and financial requirements. These assets and liabilities are subject to an interest rate risk and are hedged by derivatives or, where necessary, by specific fixed-rate loan agreements. For a more detailed description, see the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Credit risk

The Group is exposed to the risk of late payments of receivables. This risk is connected with any downgrading of the credit rating of customers and consequent possibility of late payments, or the insolvency of customers and consequent failure to receive payments. To balance this risk, the Group evaluates the financial reliability of its business partners. The Group, in particular the companies Piaggio & C. S.p.A. and Intermarine S.p.A., also stipulates contracts with important Italian and foreign factoring companies for the sale of trade receivables without recourse.

Risks related to deleverage

This risk is connected with compliance with covenants and targets to reduce loans, to maintain a sustainable debt/equity balance.
To offset this risk, the measurement of financial covenants and other contract commitments is monitored by the Group on an ongoing basis.